Agave Nectar - A thick liquid made from an extract of the wild agave plant. You can find agave nectar at Native Seeds/SEARCH.
Birch Syrup - A syrup extracted from birch trees. The sweetener Xylitol is made from birch trees. Slow Food USA has a listing of companies that sell and produce birch syrup.
Brown Rice Syrup - Is a syrup made from the liquid made by cooking cultured rice with enzymes. Lundberg Family Farms makes Brown Rice Syrup.
Corn Syrup (Light, Dark, High Fructose) - A syrup made from corn starch. The corn starch is treated with a series of three enzymes to convert it into syrup. Corn syrup is composed mostly of glucose. To get High Fructose Corn Syrup the corn syrup is treated with other enzymes to convert some of the glucose into fructose.
Date Sugar -Date sugar is made from dehydrated and ground dates. Bob's Red Mill carries date sugar.
Fig Syrup (also called Petimezi) - A syrup made from boiling figs and bay leaves together. You can find a recipe on how to make fig petimezi at Greek-Recipe.com.
Fructose - A sweetener found in many fruits and vegetables. It is estimated to be twice as sweet as sugar. You can buy fructose from Bob's Red Mill.
Grape Syrup (Vin Cotto, Petimezi) - A syrup made from slow cooking grape juice until it obtains a thick syrupy texture. Typically found in Greek and Italian food. You can purchase Guerzoni Saba Biodynamic Grape Syrup from some Whole Foods stores. You can make your own Greek petimezi with a recipe from About.com.
Golden Syrup - Is a thick golden form of inverted syrup made by refining sugar cane juice into syrup or adding an acid to a sugar solution. Steen's in Louisiana makes old fashioned pure cane sugar syrup.
Hickory Syrup - A syrup made from the bark of the shagbark hickory tree. You can find hickory syrup from Local Harvest or from Hickoryworks.com.
Honey - A thick liquid made from flower nectar by honey bees. You can find honey at grocery stores and Bob's Red Mill carries honey crystals.
Maple Syrup - A syrup made from the sap of Maple trees. Maple syrup is readily available at grocery stores and Bob's Red Mill carries maple sugar.
Mesquite Syrup (Mesquite Molasses) - A syrup made from cooking mesquite pods in water until thickened. DesertUSA has a recipe for making Mesquite Molasses.
Molasses (Sulphured, Black Strap) - A thick syrup made when sugar cane or sugar beets are processed. In Middle Eastern countries molasses can be made from carob, grapes, dates, pomegranates, and mulberries. Molasses made from sugar beets is primarily used in animal feeds. You can find molasses in the baking section of grocery stores. Molasses crystals are carried by Bob's Red Mill.
Poplar Syrup - A syrup made from the bark of the tulip poplar tree. You can find Poplar Syrup at Hickoryworks.com.
Prickly Pear Syrup - A syrup made from the juice of the prickly pear fruit. You can find prickly pear syrup, nectar, jelly and butter at Native Seeds/SEARCH.
Rose Syrup - A syrup made from rose hips or rose petals. Whole Foods carries Magliano Rose Syrup which is made from rose petals. Local Harvest carries Wild Rose Syrup which is made from rose hips.
Saguaro Syrup - A syrup made from the fruits of the Saguaro cactus. Native Seeds/SEARCH carries Saguaro Syrup.
Simple Syrup - A syrup made by combining sugar and water. The Food Network has a recipe from the show Paula's Home Cooking, for making simple syrup.
Sorghum Syrup - A syrup made from the juice extracted from the sweet sorghum plant. The National Sweet Sorghum Producers and Processors Association has a listing of farms or companies that sell sorghum syrup.
Sugar (Brown, Cane, Demerara, Muscovado, Powdered, Turbinado, White) - Is made from crushed sugar cane or sugar beets that is boiled. The liquid is then allowed to cool and form crystals. Wikipedia has more about the different culinary sugars available. You can find a wide variety of different sugar types in the baking section of your local grocery store.
Sweet Sumac Syrup - A syrup made from the red berries of the Sumac tree. Local Harvest carries sweet sumac syrup.
Trimoline - An invert syrup made from combining the syrups from cane sugar and sugar beets. Look for Trimoline in restaurant or pastry/confection supply stores.