Friday, April 13, 2007
Baker's Yeast (Active Dry, Cake, Inactive Dry, Rapid Rise) - A yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that is used as a leavening agent. The yeast converts the fermentable sugars in dough into carbon dioxide which causes air bubbles to form in the dough. Red Star sells gluten free yeast products.
Brewer's Yeast (Bottom Fermenting, Top Fermenting) - Brewer's and Winemaker's use different types of yeast to produce their different beverages. The type of yeast used during the fermentation process will impact the final flavor of each beverage.
Nutritional Yeast - A nutritional supplement with a cheese like flavor that is high in various B vitamins. It does not replace other forms of yeast that are used as a leavening agent or in brewing. You can purchase nutritional yeast from Bob's Red Mill.
Agave Nectar - A thick liquid made from an extract of the wild agave plant. You can find agave nectar at Native Seeds/SEARCH.
Birch Syrup - A syrup extracted from birch trees. The sweetener Xylitol is made from birch trees. Slow Food USA has a listing of companies that sell and produce birch syrup.
Brown Rice Syrup - Is a syrup made from the liquid made by cooking cultured rice with enzymes. Lundberg Family Farms makes Brown Rice Syrup.
Corn Syrup (Light, Dark, High Fructose) - A syrup made from corn starch. The corn starch is treated with a series of three enzymes to convert it into syrup. Corn syrup is composed mostly of glucose. To get High Fructose Corn Syrup the corn syrup is treated with other enzymes to convert some of the glucose into fructose.
Date Sugar -Date sugar is made from dehydrated and ground dates. Bob's Red Mill carries date sugar.
Fig Syrup (also called Petimezi) - A syrup made from boiling figs and bay leaves together. You can find a recipe on how to make fig petimezi at Greek-Recipe.com.
Fructose - A sweetener found in many fruits and vegetables. It is estimated to be twice as sweet as sugar. You can buy fructose from Bob's Red Mill.
Grape Syrup (Vin Cotto, Petimezi) - A syrup made from slow cooking grape juice until it obtains a thick syrupy texture. Typically found in Greek and Italian food. You can purchase Guerzoni Saba Biodynamic Grape Syrup from some Whole Foods stores. You can make your own Greek petimezi with a recipe from About.com.
Golden Syrup - Is a thick golden form of inverted syrup made by refining sugar cane juice into syrup or adding an acid to a sugar solution. Steen's in Louisiana makes old fashioned pure cane sugar syrup.
Hickory Syrup - A syrup made from the bark of the shagbark hickory tree. You can find hickory syrup from Local Harvest or from Hickoryworks.com.
Honey - A thick liquid made from flower nectar by honey bees. You can find honey at grocery stores and Bob's Red Mill carries honey crystals.
Maple Syrup - A syrup made from the sap of Maple trees. Maple syrup is readily available at grocery stores and Bob's Red Mill carries maple sugar.
Mesquite Syrup (Mesquite Molasses) - A syrup made from cooking mesquite pods in water until thickened. DesertUSA has a recipe for making Mesquite Molasses.
Molasses (Sulphured, Black Strap) - A thick syrup made when sugar cane or sugar beets are processed. In Middle Eastern countries molasses can be made from carob, grapes, dates, pomegranates, and mulberries. Molasses made from sugar beets is primarily used in animal feeds. You can find molasses in the baking section of grocery stores. Molasses crystals are carried by Bob's Red Mill.
Poplar Syrup - A syrup made from the bark of the tulip poplar tree. You can find Poplar Syrup at Hickoryworks.com.
Prickly Pear Syrup - A syrup made from the juice of the prickly pear fruit. You can find prickly pear syrup, nectar, jelly and butter at Native Seeds/SEARCH.
Rose Syrup - A syrup made from rose hips or rose petals. Whole Foods carries Magliano Rose Syrup which is made from rose petals. Local Harvest carries Wild Rose Syrup which is made from rose hips.
Saguaro Syrup - A syrup made from the fruits of the Saguaro cactus. Native Seeds/SEARCH carries Saguaro Syrup.
Simple Syrup - A syrup made by combining sugar and water. The Food Network has a recipe from the show Paula's Home Cooking, for making simple syrup.
Sorghum Syrup - A syrup made from the juice extracted from the sweet sorghum plant. The National Sweet Sorghum Producers and Processors Association has a listing of farms or companies that sell sorghum syrup.
Sugar (Brown, Cane, Demerara, Muscovado, Powdered, Turbinado, White) - Is made from crushed sugar cane or sugar beets that is boiled. The liquid is then allowed to cool and form crystals. Wikipedia has more about the different culinary sugars available. You can find a wide variety of different sugar types in the baking section of your local grocery store.
Sweet Sumac Syrup - A syrup made from the red berries of the Sumac tree. Local Harvest carries sweet sumac syrup.
Trimoline - An invert syrup made from combining the syrups from cane sugar and sugar beets. Look for Trimoline in restaurant or pastry/confection supply stores.
Agar Agar (kanten, agal agal) - A gel made from the cell walls of a few species of red algae or seaweed. Eden Foods carries agar agar bars and flakes.
Agar Agar is high in iodine. Follow the link to agar agar flakes and click on Nutrition Facts to learn more about the nutrient profile of agar agar.
A Gluten A Go Go Recipe using agar agar is Buckwheat Brioche.
Alginic Acid (Alginate) – A viscous gum that is found in the cell walls of brown algae. Primarily used by the food industry in ice cream, jellies, jams and more.
Beta-Glucan – A natural gum found in the bran of cereal grains, such as barley, oats, rye, wheat or brewer's yeast. Determine the source of the beta-glucan before using or consuming it as it may not be gluten free.
Beurre Manie - A dough made of equal parts of butter and flour kneaded together. It is then blended into soups and sauces to thicken them.Carrageenan - A natural cellulose gel made from the ground leaves of various species of red seaweed. Carrageenan is primarily used by the food and personal care industries.
Cassia Gum (Foetid Cassia, Chinese Senna, Coffee Weed) – A gum made from the seeds of the Senna Obtusifolia plant.
Chia Seed Gel - Chia seeds soaked in water will produce a gel that can be used as a thickener. Make chia gel by soaking 1 Tb of chia seeds with 9 Tb of water. Chia seeds are high in fiber. Native Seeds/SEARCH carries chia seeds.A Gluten A Go Go recipe using chia seed gel is Lemon Chia Seed Bread.
Chicle Gum – A gum made from the chicle tree.
Gellan Gum – A gum produced by the bacteria, Sphingomonas elodea.
Gelatin - A protein made from the collagen in the connective tissue of animals. Gifts of Nature carries a gluten-free unflavored gelatin.
Guar Gum - A natural gum thickener made from the powdered seeds of the guar plant. Bob's Red Mill carries guar gum.
Guar Gum contains fiber. To learn more about guar gum, follow the link to Bob's Red Mill and click on the Nutrition Facts link.
A Gluten A Go Go recipe using guar gum is Cinnamon Rolls.
Gum Arabic (Gum Acacia) – A natural gum that comes from several species of Acacia trees. It is primarily used to make gum drops, marshmallows, and soft drink syrups.
Gum Ghatti – A gum made from the sap of the Anogeissus trees.Gumbo File (File Powder) - A distinctive powder made from the ground leaves of the sassafras tree, used in traditional gumbo recipes. It also acts as a thickener when added to recipes. You can purchase Gumbo File from Zatarain's.
Karaya Gum - A gum made from the extract of Sterculia trees. It is primarily used by the food industry at this time.
Katakuri – A starch made from the corm of a lily (Erythronium japonicum) native to
Konnyaku (Konjac, Konjaku) - A gel made from the corm of the Konnyaku plant. The gel does not dissolve readily in the mouth, unlike gelatin, agar agar or others. It is also high in fiber. Look for Konnyaku or Konjac in Asian markets.
Kudzu or Kuzu Starch - A thickener made from the powdered roots of the kuzu (kudzu) plant. Look for kuzu powder in Asian markets or from Eden Foods.
A Gluten A Go Go recipe using Kudzu/kuzu powder is Banana Coconut Macadamia Nut Muffins.
Locust Bean Gum - A vegetable gum extracted from the seeds of the Carob tree. At this time, locust bean gum is primarily used by the food industry.
Mastic Gum (Mastic Resin) – A gum made from the sap of the Mastic tree. Look for mastic gum in Greek, Turkish or Middle Eastern food stores.
Methylcellulose – A chemical compound made from cellulose. An ingredient in Orgran’s Gluten Substitute, which you can buy from Glutenfree.com.
Pectin - It is a gel or powder made from the cell walls of plants. Look for pectin in the canning areas of grocery stores or Kraft sells different types of Sure-Jell. Whole Foods carries Pomona's Universal Pectin, look for it in the baking aisle.
Psyllium (Plantago) Seed Husks – A gel made when Psyllium Seed Husks or the ground seeds are soaked in water.
A Gluten A Go Go Recipe using ground psyllium seeds: Pear Upside Down Pancake
Spruce Gum – A gum made from the sap of the Spruce tree.Tapioca (Granulated) - Made from the root of the cassava or yucca plant. Use 1 Tb of quick cooking granulated tapioca to 2 Tb of liquid to make a paste. Edward & Sons makes a brand of gluten free granulated tapioca called Let's Do Organic...Organic Tapioca.
A Gluten A Go Go Recipe using granulated tapioca is Coconut Bread.
Tapioca Jelly - A jelly made with 2 Tb washed tapioca pearls and 2 cups of water. Place the pearls and water into a sauce pan. Allow the pearls to soak in the water for 3 hours. Then place the sauce pan on the stove and allow the mixture to simmer until it is clear. If the jelly gets too thick, add a little boiling water at a time until it is the desired consistency.
Tapioca jelly is an old recipe that is found in cookbooks used on the America trail to Cookery for Invalids by Mary Hooper (1876).
You can find tapioca pearls in most grocery stores.
Tara Gum – A gum made from the seeds of the Tara or Spiny Holdback shrub.
Tragacanth (Gum Tragacanth) – A gum made from the sap of several species of Astragalus trees.Xanthan Gum - A natural gum produced by fermenting corn sugar with the bacteria, Xanthomonas campestris. You can purchase gluten-free xanthan gum from: Bob's Red Mill, Gifts of Nature, and Glutenfree.com.
Xanthan Gum contains fiber. To learn more about the nutrient profile of xanthan gum, follow the link to Bob's Red Mill and click on Nutrition Facts.
Chia Seeds - A gluten-free seed that comes from a plant in the mint family (Salvia hispanica). The meal made from ground chia seeds is called pinole. The seeds are available from Native Seeds/SEARCH.
Flaxseed Meal (Brown, Golden, Common Flax, Linseed) - Flaxseeds come from a plant in the linum family. You can find gluten-free brown and golden flaxseed that you can grind into meal at: Bob's Red Mill and Arrowhead Mills.
Job's Tears Flour/Meal (Coixseed, Adlay, Adlai, Chinese Pearl Barley) - A flour made from the seeds of a tall cereal grass (Croix lacryma-jobi) that ranges from East Asia to East India. Look for Job's Tears in Asian markets.
Lupin Flour - Made from the seeds of the lupin flower. Note: People who are allergic to peanuts should be cautious about consuming lupin seeds/flour. The Italian company, Bi-Aglut carries some products with lupin flour.
Plantago (Psyllium) Seed Meal - Made from the seeds of the plantago flower. To make plantago seed meal, grind seeds in a coffee or spice grinder. Plantago seed meal is used as a stabilizer or gelling agent for gluten free foods or frozen desserts like sherbet.
Plantago seeds contain fiber, protein and triglycerides. Some people can have an allergic or asthmatic reaction to consuming plantago (psyllium) seeds. If you decide you would like to use psyllium on a regular basis and take certain herbal supplements, vitamins or medications you should be aware that there might be some interactions, so make sure to check with your personal physician before using it.
Sesame Seed Meal - The seeds from an annual plant in the Sesamum family. Used as a gluten free meal in pastry items in Greece. You can find gluten-free sesame seeds (hulled & unhulled) at Arrowhead Mills.
Sunflower Seed Meal - The seeds or kernels of the sunflower plant. You can find gluten-free sunflower seeds at: Arrowhead Mills.
Most varieties of nut meals are not available ready to purchase. The Cook's Thesaurus describes how to make nut meals.
Acorn Meal - A meal made from the ground nuts of the Oak tree. Acorns contain tannins which must be removed before eaten. You can read more on how to make acorn meal (masa) from the Kumeyaay Nation. If you would like to purchase acorn meal, try looking in your local Korean food market.
Almond Meal - A meal made from the fruit of the Almond tree. Bob's Red Mill carries gluten free almond meal made from raw blanched almonds.
Brazil Nut Meal - A meal made from the ground nuts of the Brazil Nut tree.
Butternut Meal (White Walnut) - A meal made from the ground nuts of the Butternut tree.
Candlenut Meal (Kukui Nut, Italian Walnut, Kemiri) - A meal made from the ground nuts of the Candlenut tree.
Cashew Meal - A meal made from the ground nut of the Cashew tree.
Chestnut Flour - A flour made from the ground nuts of the Chestnut tree. Dowd & Rogers has fine Italian Chestnut flour which is carried by the Gluten Free Mall.
Hazelnut Meal - A meal made from the ground nuts of the Common Hazel shrub. You can find gluten free hazelnut meal at Bob's Red Mill.
Hickory Nut Meal - A meal made from the ground nuts of the Hickory tree.
Macadamia Nut Meal - A meal made from the ground nuts of the Macadamia tree.
Pecan Meal - A meal made from the ground nuts of the Pecan tree.
Pine Nuts - A meal made from the seeds of different varieties of Pine trees.
Pistachio Meal - A meal made from the ground nuts of the Pistachio tree.
Walnut Meal - A meal made from the ground nuts of the Walnut tree.
Wikipedia also maintains a page on nuts.
A list of edible seeds is posted on Wikipedia.
Oat Bran - The hard outer shell of the oat grain.
Pea Hull Fibre - The outer casing of the pea. You can purchase pea hull fibre from Kinnikinnick.
Rice Bran - The hard outer covering of the rice grain. You can purchase rice bran from Ener-G Foods.